Prevalence of malocclusions associated with pernicious oral habits in a Mexican sample

Laura Mendoza Oropeza

Resumen


Malocclusions are considered by the WHO as the third event by its prevalence and they represent a public health problem. Genetic and environmental risk factors such as abnormal oral habits are of vital importance to consider its frequency, duration and intensity in order to avoid creating specifi c changes in the occlusion. Objective: To determine the prevalence of malocclusions and its association with risk factors, such as pernicious oral habits in a 2 to 15-yearold child population who requested dental care in the Venustiano Carranza peripheral clinic of the UNAM. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 147 children. Previously, the examiners who participated in the study were calibrated with a 98% concordance for pernicious habits and 92% for malocclusions. The epidemiologic information was recollected in one phase that comprised two stages to identify the presence of pernicious oral habits and diagnose the type of malocclusion. The statistical package SPSS 15 was used. Results: The prevalence of pernicious oral habits was 96.6%. The largest number of cases presented at age 4 and in the 6 to 11 years of age during the mixed dentition. Malocclusions were present in both genders with no significant difference. The habit with the highest prevalence was lingual interposition (66.2%); the second was lip suction (49.3%); the third was onychophagia (41.9%) and fi nally, mouth-breathing (31.8%). In regard to malocclusions, the most prevalent was open bite (35.1%) followed by lower anterior crowding (26.4%), upper anterior crowding (19.6%) and lastly, posterior crossbite (12.8%). There was an association between tongue thrusting and open bite (p < 0.000), and with mouth breathing-posterior crossbite (p < 0.012) and Angle class II (p < 0.008). Conclusions: Child population presents greater susceptibility to develop malocclusions during growth so preventive measures should be adopted during this stage.

Key words: Pernicious habits, malocclusions, mixed dentition. 


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2395-9215(16)30151-9

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